Deep Cleaning/Scaling and Root Planing
Over time, even the best oral hygiene cannot always prevent plaque from remaining in your mouth, hardening and becoming tartar (otherwise known as calculus) which can cause periodontal disease if left in your mouth. "Scaling" removes tartar using vibrations from ultrasound or a scaler (tool used to remove tartar from beneath the gum line of the tooth).
Considering that plaque sticks to rough areas of the tooth, removing the tartar from the tooth is followed by smoothing the rough surfaces with a procedure called "root planing." Root planing helps prevent periodontal disease from arising and spreading, as well as reverses the earlier signs of gum disease.